An east-to-west gradient was found in contents of limonene, myrcene, and α-pinene, whereas a high ß-phellandrene content was more frequent in western than in eastern provenances. Inadequately trained staff and poor infrastructure led to many SSCAs not being able to meet the growing certification demand, especially for nonhybrid crops, such as rice. Risk is inherent in all of agriculture, but the ginger industry appears to be more exposed to risk than many other agricultural endeavors (Fleming and Sato, 1998). The private sector has its own set of technical staff to supervise its contract seed growers’ fields. The technical staff of SSCAs supervise both FS and CS production in farmers’ fields (contract seed growers) of SSDCs, NSC, SFC, cooperatives, and also private seed companies. PSTVd was also found in potato clones and true potato seed maintained at the International Potato Center in Lima, Peru (Peiman and Xie, 2006; Salazar et al., 1983). With regards to physical characteristics, weed seeds can contribute to screenings. The purpose of seed certification is to maintain and make available to the public, through certification, high quality seeds and propagating materials of notified kind and varieties so grown and distributed as to ensure genetic identity and genetic purity. 8.7). By using this website, you consent to our use of cookies. Severe late-season competition from weeds can reduce mean grain weights, specific weights and protein concentrations (Cosser et al.,  1996; Awan, 2002). ELISA tests are an integral part of current seed potato certification programs to control potato viruses in North America and will remain so for the near future. Some of the policy measures appropriate to the ginger industry are the following: Healthy seed production through the “Seed Village Concept” by regular field monitoring for diseases and pests, and enforcing seed certification measures. Ergot severity can be closely correlated with ingress of alternative grass hosts in cereal fields (Mantle et al.,  1977). Each country has to face considerable competition from other ginger-producing countries because of many new countries entering into the ginger industry in recent years. There are ∼120 national seed testing laboratories and 25 state, Lipids, Terpenoids, and Related Substances, Theodore T. Kozlowski, Stephen G. Pallardy, in, Physiology of Woody Plants (Second Edition). Table 43.1. This is related to age to first bearing and longevity of the crop. In addition to this abrupt fluctuation in price, the ginger crop is also highly susceptible to serious disease problems, leading to a reduction in rhizome yield, and an unmarketable production. Most growers can produce certified seed if they are willing to make the extra effort. In blue spruce there also were major differences in synthesis of monoterpenes in the leaves when compared with the twigs and buds. During 1999–2000, ginger farmers received an all-time high price, which was more than double the price in the preceding year. Object of Seed Certification: 1) To ensure genetical identity of a variety. It involves field inspection, pre and post control … Seed certification is the process of certifying that these quality standards are met. Estimated yield losses in North America were approximately 1%, low as a percentage but still significant in absolute terms. Von Rudloff (1972, 1975) showed that large seasonal changes in terpenes of white spruce and blue spruce occurred only in the buds and young leaves after bud burst and continued until mid-summer. This accounts for only 30% of the CS currently produced in these states. II. In 2009, the National Plant Protection Organization declared PSTVd eradicated and absent from Argentina (EPPO, 2009). The Certification Program: Licenses Certified Growers. As a member of the EU, Ireland is obliged to implement the EU Seeds Directives and Regulations. Indian farmers need to be urgently educated on various aspects of ginger production, right from sowing to harvest and proper postharvest technology. Verhoeven, in Viroids and Satellites, 2017. The length of the harvest period also has its risks: the longer the harvest period, the greater the risk of failure. In 2013, a severe outbreak of chlorosis and stunting was observed in a tomato field in the Dominican Republic and RT-PCR analysis determined the causal agent was PSTVd (Ling et al., 2013). Because LEED certification is an investment, it’s important to … The authors speculated that infected seed may have been the initial inoculum. Similar certification processes on hatchery management and operation exist in Indonesia. The following sections explain how the seed certification system works: Plant Breeders' Rights (National Catalogue), Links to Related National and International Bodies, Growers Guide to Seed Certification - Combinable Crops, Data Protection Notice - Crop Policy Evaluation and Seed Certification.